I did a little research and dug a little deeper. I dropped the ResultsLimit parameter from the call since it was running before the search, so now I have this code snippet:
$test2 = $api->get("LogRecord", ["search" => ["device" => ["id" => $sampleUserId], "fromDate" => $testDate, "toDate" => $test2Date]]);
The date functionality works now, but I can't seem to get it to search by device now. Suggestions?